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Pakistan, Taliban Ties Hurt by Attacks 05/19 06:15


   ISLAMABAD (AP) -- Faced with rising violence, Pakistan is taking a tougher 
line to pressure Afghanistan's Taliban rulers to crack down on militants hiding 
on their soil, but so far the Taliban remain reluctant to take action -- trying 
instead to broker a peace.

   Last month came a sharp deterioration in relations between the two neighbors 
when Pakistan carried out airstrikes in eastern Afghanistan. Witnesses said the 
strikes hit a refugee camp and another location, killing at least 40 civilians. 
UNICEF said 20 children were believed to be among the dead.

   Pakistan never confirmed the April 15 strikes, but two days later its 
Foreign Ministry issued a sharp warning to the Taliban not to shelter militants.

   The pressure has put the Taliban in a tight corner. The Taliban have long 
been close to several militant groups carrying out attacks in Pakistan, 
particularly the Pakistani Taliban, a separate organization known by the 
acronym TTP. The TTP and other groups have only got more active on Afghan soil 
since the Taliban takeover in August.

   But the Taliban are wary of cracking down on them, fearful of creating more 
enemies at a time when they already face an increasingly violent campaign by 
Afghanistan's Islamic State group affiliate, analysts say.

   A series of bombings across Afghanistan in recent weeks, mostly targeting 
minority Hazaras, has killed dozens. Most are blamed on the Islamic State 
affiliate, known by the acronym IS-K. The bloodshed has undermined the 
Taliban's claims to be able to provide the security expected of a governing 

   This week, the Taliban hosted talks between the TTP and a Pakistani 
government delegation as well as a group of Pakistani tribal leaders, 
apparently hoping for a compromise that can ease the pressure. On Wednesday, 
the TTP announced it was extending to May 30 an earlier cease-fire it had 

   The Taliban government's deputy spokesman Bilal Karimi said it "is trying 
its best for the continuation and success of the negotiations and meanwhile 
asks both sides to have flexibility."

   But past cease-fires with the TTP have failed, and already the current one 
was shaken by violence last weekend.

   Pakistan's frustration appears to be growing as violence on its soil has 

   The secessionist Baluchistan Liberation Army killed three Chinese nationals 
in late April. The TTP and the Afghan-based IS have targeted Pakistan's 
military with increasing regularity.

   Militant attacks in Pakistan are up nearly 50% since the Taliban takeover in 
Afghanistan, according to the Pakistan Institute of Peace Studies, an 
independent think tank based in Islamabad that tracks militant activities. The 
group documented 170 attacks between September and mid-May that killed 170 
police, military and paramilitary personnel and more than 110 civilians.

   The United Nations estimates that as many as 10,000 TTP militants are hiding 
in Afghanistan. So far, Afghanistan's rulers have done little to dismantle 
militant redoubts on their territory.

   Prominent Afghans from southern Afghanistan, who spoke to The Associated 
Press on condition of anonymity, said the Pakistani Taliban and Pakistani 
Baluch secessionists had established several safe houses in the area during the 
previous U.S.-backed government's rule and they have remained since the Taliban 

   The Pakistani airstrikes in April marked a dramatically tougher stance. They 
came after a militant ambush killed seven soldiers near the border with 
Afghanistan. Pakistani and Afghani border forces often exchange rocket fire 
amid disputes over the frontier -- but it is rare for Pakistan to use warplanes 
on targets inside its neighbor.

   The change came after weeks of political turmoil in Pakistan that unseated 
Imran Khan as prime minister. Khan had been an advocate of negotiations with 
militants and had campaigned for the world to engage with the Taliban after 
their takeover in Afghanistan.

   Michael Kugelman, deputy director of the Asia Program at the U.S.-based 
Wilson Center said Khan "had a soft spot for the Taliban as well as a 
principled opposition to the use of force in Afghanistan."

   With Khan now out of the picture and TTP attacks continuing, "we can expect 
a stronger Pakistani readiness to use military operations," he said.

   The Afghan Taliban are warning Pakistan against further military action, 
threatening retaliation.

   The airstrikes "are not acceptable," Taliban-appointed Defense Minister 
Mohammad Yaqoob warned Pakistan in late April. "The only reason we have 
tolerated this attack is because of our national interest, but it is possible 
we will not be so tolerant in the future."

   The son of the Taliban founder, Mullah Mohammad Omar, Yaqoob is a powerful 
figure in the Taliban leadership, which is struggling to stay united amid 
disagreements about how to govern their war-ravaged nation.

   The leadership council seems firmly split between two camps: the pragmatists 
and hard-liners. Pragmatists have pushed for global engagement and opening of 
schools to girls of all ages. The hard-liners want to return Afghanistan to the 
late 1990s Taliban rule when women and girls were denied access to most public 
spaces and a rigid and unforgiving version of Islam and tribal rule was imposed.

   A flurry of repressive edicts of late suggest the hard-liners have the upper 
hand, including an order that women wear all-encompassing veils that leave only 
the eyes visible and a decision not to allow girls to attend school past the 
sixth grade.

   Yaqoob falls among the pragmatists, according to several prominent Afghans 
familiar with the Taliban leadership. Still, there seems no decision among the 
leaders on either side of the divide to oust militants on their territory.

   "I do not see any quick fix to the Pakistan-Afghan situation. The Taliban 
will continue to provide sanctuary to the TTP and hope they can extend their 
own influence into Pakistan over time," said Shuja Nawaz, an expert and fellow 
at the South Asia Center of the U.S-based Atlantic Council.

   "So, expect the situation to deteriorate, especially with the (Pakistan) 
military calling the shots on Afghan policy," Nawaz said.

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